Turning Salt Water Into Fuel?

By Justin Gardner | Related entries in Energy, Science, Technology

Sounds crazy, but just read…

SANIBEL ISLAND, Fla. — A Florida man may have accidentally invented a machine that could solve the gasoline and energy crisis plaguing the U.S., WPBF News 25 reported.

Sanibel Island resident John Kanzius is a former broadcast executive from Pennsylvania who wondered if his background in physics and radio could come in handy in treating the disease from which he suffers: cancer.

Kanzius, 63, invented a machine that emits radio waves in an attempt to kill cancerous cells while leaving normal cells intact. While testing his machine, he noticed that his invention had other unexpected abilities.

Filling a test tube with salt water from a canal in his back yard, Kanzius placed the tube and a paper towel in the machine and turned it on. Suddenly, the paper towel ignited, lighting up the tube like it was a wax candle.

“Pretty neat, huh?” Kanzius asked WPBF’s Jon Shainman.

Kanzius performed the experiment without the paper towel and got the same result — the saltwater was actually burning.

The former broadcasting executive said he showed the experiment to a handful of scientists across the country who claim they are baffled at watching salt water ignite.

It’ll be interesting to see how this technology plays out, but we could be looking at a breakthrough here.

Fingers crossed…

UPDATE:
For videos of the technology, click here.

UPDATE:
Here’s a story about researchers Down Under trying to do the same thing.

Wicked.

UPDATE:
And here’s a new fuel made out of sugar?

Sweet!


This entry was posted on Monday, May 28th, 2007 and is filed under Energy, Science, Technology. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

75 Responses to “Turning Salt Water Into Fuel?”

  1. Donklephant » Blog Archive » Video: More On Salt Water Into Fire Technology Says:

    [...] John Kanzius is all over the local Florida media, so here are a bunch of stories about his interesting new invention. [...]

  2. Misanthrope Says:

    Interesting, I’ve read several stories about this but it never says how many watts his RF generator consumes. Is this a net gain in energy?

  3. Henry Eckstein Says:

    Using Radio Frequency Emissions to heat water
    is not particularly new since there are similar heating
    effects in a reaction called sonoluminescence
    which uses sound waves to induce micro-cavitation
    and the subsequent implosions of the micro-cavities
    in liquid to create vast amounts of heat and
    visible photon emissions.

    I’ll bet you two bits if an industrial camera
    with wide-band radiation sensing
    capabilities were used to capture the reaction
    described in the video, that you would see emissions
    of photons in the infrared band and in the ultraviolet band
    within the lower part of the test-tube away from the
    burning flame. There may even be soft X-ray emissions
    due to the sheer speed of the reaction which must dissipate
    that stored heat energy in some way at frequencies
    beyond the visible light bands.

    Radio-frequency waves can ALSO BE USED to induce
    cavitation and the subsequent sudden cavity collapse
    (implosions) in liquids. The salt is probably a catalyst
    by absorbing enough heat (acting as a heat sink)
    so that visible wave-length photon emissions from
    the cavity collapse is inhibited and the stored heat
    energy then must be dissipated in another way,
    which in this case, the hydrogen/oxygen bond breaks
    down to feed a fire.

    What was seen in the video could technically be
    not a chemical reaction, but rather a fission reaction.
    The fire is a mere byproduct of a high-density,
    high-frequency radiative energy transformation
    dissipating the stored energy as heat to cause
    a subsequent chemical reaction within the H2O.

    Pass this tidbit along to the parties in question
    to see if my “guestimate” on what is happening
    is correct…

    Thanks

    Henry “Aviation Jedi” Eckstein

  4. Phil Camp Says:

    There’s an alternate explanation – a wet blanket, I fear.
    The wet paper towel would conduct electricity, which includes radio waves. When placed near the RF generator, it would act as an antenna, absorbing RF enegry, which would be released as heat. :(

    As Fermi said, “Never believe an experimental result w/o a theoretical explanation.” That is, a one shot result can have all sorts of explanations. You want to see if you can reproduce it. If you can, you may be on to something.
    HTH,
    Phil

  5. CJ Says:

    If there IS any net gain in energy from this discovery, that is what it will remain: a discovery. The effort to suppress science that benefits humanity will come out with all guns blazing and the scenario will be one or all of these possibles:
    1. No ‘credible’ scientific group will touch this.
    2. It will be found to be less-than-over-unity (no gain) whether it is or not.
    3. If it IS a threat to big oil and Mr. Kanzius refuses to sell, he will be visited by the DOJ/IRS/DHS (pick one). In this case add the FDA.
    4. If No. 3 is true, Mr. Kanzius’ cancer will kill him before anyone ‘learns’ what the process is.

    It’s the American way.

  6. Patrick James Says:

    If I was John Kanzius I would go into hiding. The oil companies will certainly never let something like this see the light of day into the market place. They’ll get him before the cancer does.

  7. mrG Says:

    A google on “John Kanzius” turns up all sorts of references for his RF cancer treatment, but also a few links that describe this machine a bit more. For example the ‘secret’ of the machine appears to be in liberating the hydrogen from the water, which seems far more plausible than “burning salt water” ;)

    btw, about the re-captcha: brilliant!

  8. Planet B.S. Chronicles Says:

    All I can tell this guy is ‘BEWARE’.

    We’ve seen this time and time again. If there is any possibility this could solve the petro-chemical ‘hostage’ situation, billions will be spent to shelf it.

    He could get rich by selling out to the oligarchs. If he chooses to benefit the human race with this, I suggest he patents this process quickly (if they’ll allow it.) and allow tens of thousands of independant researchers to develop this ‘new energy’ process with the help of the internet. They can’t payoff or kill everybody. The establishment will pay universities to ‘debunk’ any legitimate research.

    Related story. see… Water Car inventor (Stan Meyer) Murdered.
    http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3333992194168790800&q=Stanley+Meyers&hl=en

  9. wayne Says:

    He’ll get a payoff one way or the other just like everyone before him such as Tesla and many others

  10. peter moore Says:

    If he was trying to make a rife frequency generator well ,yes,then he has a cure for cancer as well as a cure for energy crisis.Maybe he deserves a reward,but the oil companies would prefer to rub him out as would the pharmaceutical companies as they did do to Rife who cured 16 of 16 incurable cancer patients in 1932.This man should have bodyguards and it is serious stuff.Energy from salt water has happened before but the inventor did not survive long.rife enthusiast

  11. mike Says:

    Well. that is an amazing discovery. Too bad that big oil has probably already paid him off and raided the patent office.

  12. Thomas Says:

    Old science. Already in use in mid seventies on 300 trucks and tractors in Switzerland. Govt ordered all dismantled. Garrettt was making in car hydrogen, patented it in 1935. If we can send color TV pix back from planet Mars, dont tell us our scientists cant split a water molecule efficiently. No way Big Oil would allow this heresy to go on…

  13. Rick Says:

    “CJ” is wise beyond his years. He can expect a visit from the men in black now.

  14. Bob Says:

    If he keeps it to himself without getting the whole technology on the Net ASAP then the Illuminotti (top level of world Freemasonry that now completely controls all sizeable churches like the Catholis Church, National Council of Churches, and created the Mormon Church, Jehovah’s Witnesses, 7th Day Adventists and just about all the evangelicals – 700 Club, etc.) who worship Lucifer, Moloc, Baphomet, and Satan and consist of the top world Banksters (Rothchilds, Warburgs, Rockefellers, DuPonts, etc. along with the European Royals), and plan all our wars and are the real creators and designers of terrorism in order to justify the total police state, and confisgate all private property, take total control of the internet WILL SNUFF HIM OUT ALONG WITH HIS DISCOIVERY

  15. rupert Says:

    if he chooses to patent it should be done abroad. upsto saic cia.

    there are pragmatic reasons for the supression of certain technologies. like what would happen to a cold fusion rig being hooked up to a marx generator.

    do not try it.

  16. Tobias Says:

    Rubbish!

    There is NO energy stored in water, salty or not. If in fact it is true that it ignites then it is because of the powerfull RF waves and nothing else.
    Water CAN NOT be used as a fuel, sorry guys. If water was split into hydrogen and oxygen then those two parts could be used as a fuel, but guess watt? it takes MORE energy to split the water molecules than you get out again by combining them. So let me repeat: There is NO energy stored in water. This is elementary science, guys.

  17. Libs Earth Watch » TURNING SALT WATER INTO FUEL? Says:

    [...] MORE [...]

  18. Kwabbernoot Says:

    Many many versions of this invention have been suppressed by the illuminati who have kept us enslaved us through manipulation of currencies, creation of perpetual wars, control of politics, media, taxes, scientists and religions. Not a single country has ever allowed an independent audit into the harvest of their Inland Revenue and such taxation systems. They don’t know that in the eyes of God we are all equal. The only way a free energy invention would NOT be suppressed is when the inventor does NOT contact any media nor any patent organisation, because very probably all of them are under 100% control of the illuminati. The inventor should give his invention away for free on many places at the same time; not only on internet; hoping that a few years later, when the illuminati will have lost their power, he will get a gigantic worldwide gratitude and recognition. I for one would certainly give him a BIG donation, and there would probably be tens of thousands like me.

  19. HM Says:

    If this is truely a breakthrough it should be handled as follows:
    The accidental inventor/discoverer should immediately share ALL this knowledge with everyone on the net. He can publicise his bank details and people like me will make a small deposit into his account every month once this knowledge will start to save me money. All knowledge suppressors/manipulators will be kicked solidly in the balls by this action and the world will be a better place. If I was this inventor and I died knowing I made this world a better place- even if I made not ONE cent from the invention – I will still feel extremely satisfied…more satisfied than the BASTARDS raping this planet and it’s people to hoard the booty that they cannot take with them once they leave this place.

  20. Hopeful Says:

    It sounds very promising. There might be something to it since he’s already shown it to scientists who are unable to explain it. Surely they’ve considered all of the usual explanations but are apparently still baffled. I hope it’s real and that it doesn’t just disappear.

  21. Rabbit Says:

    Phil Camp

    You did not read very carefully. It burned apparently without the paper towel too.

    @Tobias
    Auto-scepticism about anything merely due to our imperfect understanding of science is counter-intuitive. The simple fact is your own science understanding is insufficient even by arbitrary human standards. According even to the science we un derstand, there is an enormous amount of energy locked up in Salt Water, or indeed any material. What we don’t know, is how to release it. In a thousand years from now, we will look back on this time in history and consider we were but primitives, not much further advanced yet than the discovery of the wheel and taming of fire for example. We look back a thousand years now to see this. Our rate of learning is progressing at an exponential rate and predictrions are we may achieve something known as the singularity in the next thrity years or so. (Look it up) Thereafter almost nothing will be impossible to us anymore it is predicted.
    There have been working over unity machines operating at least since Tesla’s time and the technology is from time to time re-discovered or repeated from old notes etc. Even the science of these is somewhat understood by some. Tesla had a radically different way of looking at electricity/energy. He considered all of modern theory of electricity to be wrong. He also invented AC electricity and many of the most extraordinary devices ever seen. Some of his achievments were confirmed by numerous reliable witnesses and yet would seem like nothing less than witchcraft to us even now. Tesla was an entire scientific realm beyond our race, I cannot emphasise enough how awesome was his comprehension of energy and space.

    IT is known that there is something called Energy of the vaccuum and it can be tapped into even though the machinery which does so, is not understood at all. A true scientist does not ignore a result because he cannot undertsand it. Unfortunately this is exactly what our scientific community usually does.

  22. Rabbit Says:

    Oops, I should say Tesla discovered AC electricity, he didn’t exactly invent it, though he then invented the AC motor. He also invented a small device which could be started with a battery then the battery removed and the device ran continuously to put out enough electricty to drive an AC motor powered car for many hours at good speed. In fact he claimed it ran more or less indefinately once started. The world and the universe is a far more extraordinary thing with vastly greater mysteries awaiting our discovery than any we have so far discovered. Just a prediction.

  23. FranzJoseph Says:

    This story is a near-complete reiteration of the same thing told by J.B.Campbell, the militia guy, in one of his essays last autumn. In that story, the inventor was threatened into silence.

    The question now is would it be a good thing or not? Unlimited cheap fuel would give us what?

    The interesting book, THE HUNT FOR ZERO POINT by Nick Cook, strongly hints that the secret to unlimited fuel is already known, or nearly so, by the Powers That Be in this world, which is why the National Security Act was passed in the US in 1947 (Other nations deal with it in other ways.)

    The kicker in the Cook tale is that it was refugee scientists from Hitler’s Germany that provided the impetus, and that’s what Operation Paperclip was mostly about. Mkultra was what the rest was about.

    True or strange? We’ll see.

  24. Jeff Says:

    As an Engineering Physics student I claim to know a little about the simpler workings of chemistry. Though I do not claim to be an expert on the matter.

    First, you need to know what in in the water. H2O and Na+ (sodium) and Cl- (chloride) that is water and dissolved salt.

    Second, those who know something about chemistry know that Sodium burns a yellow color as shown in the video.

    Third, it is important to know how a microwave works. In layman’s terms the microwaves wiggle the hydrogen atoms in water as they absorb energy. This is called dielectric heating. Wiggle them enough and they come off.

    Finally, the activity series of metals gives you the answer. It shows that Sodium will more readily oxidize than Hydrogen in the prescence of Oxygen. Want to test this? Find a chunk of pure sodium and dump it in water.

    Thus, when you liberate the oxygen from the hydrogen the sodium is oxidized by the oxygen creating the yellow flame seen.

    This means that the reaction taking place is 4(Na+) + (O2) => 2Na2O
    or potentially (Na+) + (O^2-) => Na2O

    I’m sure that there are some missing links in my argument, but it’s kind of late and I want to go to bed. Perhaps I will clarify sometime.

  25. Tobias Says:

    Rabbit, yes well it will require the breaking of the laws of thermodynamics as well as a bunch of other laws.
    And ZPE (Zero Point Energy) has nothing to do with water, the reason you think that is because you saw some hollywood movie where some ‘professor’ said that “with the energy of a cup of water you can boil all the oceans”.
    They talk about water in that instance so that lay-men like you can understand it more easilly. It is to do with the volume of space-time and not ‘water’. Further, nothing scientific is stated in the article, only a vague reference to a ‘scientist’. Did more energy come out of the ‘reaction’ that came in through the RF?
    I can also re-create this ‘experiment’. I can put a mars-bar in my micro-wave oven and cook it till it melts, and WOA LOOK it MELTED I must have CREATED ENERGY, lets make a car that can run on mars-bars!!! YAY!
    This is a HOAX people. You are way too gullible, you probably beleive in the toothfairy and santa claus too..

  26. Ryan Says:

    The conspiracy nuts are out in force today.

  27. Dan Says:

    Some of the most amazing things have been discovered by accident.

  28. Patrick Sullivan Says:

    For a theoretical explanation of these “Free Energy” machines read the Sullivan Corollary to the Kaluza-Klein theorem.
    The Physics of Torque
    Mass absorption as a mechanism to access the 5th Dimension.

    Planetary Inertial field generators for heat and electricity

    http://politicsofet.com/whats_new_1.html

  29. Manfred Says:

    This guy has taken the test “salt water” from a channel behind his house in Florida. Does anyone know what sort of pollution is in there? Like old engine oil, vegetal decomposition products such as alcohol, perhaps some gator’s crap, etc! I would not be surprised if by heating that sort of “salt water”, be it by RF or by any other means, enough combustible substances are boiled out of it to produce such a surprise!
    If it doesn’t take too much energy to extract that fuel from this water, this guy should sell his water, rather than the “invention”! There might indeed be some potential here!
    I’m pretty sure you can reproduce this experiment using waste water from any city’s sewer system. That sort of water gives off lots of methane when heated! But it will hardly be over unity.

    The salt is purely optional.

  30. Vonk Says:

    Most likely the canal is polluted with petroleum from boats etc and that’s all that’s here. There is no such thing as “flubber” that people just stumble upon.

  31. Henry Eckstein Says:

    Paul’s reply regarding the reaction taking place
    is actually quite correct in that his hypothesis
    of 4(Na+) + (O2) => 2Na2O or potentially
    (Na+) + (O^2-) => Na2O
    caused by a dialectric heating effect is correct.

    One big caveat though is that his explanation,
    I think, only covers the portion of the cascade reaction
    which caused the hydrogen to initially ignite and burn.
    His explanation I think does not quite cover the initial
    cause of the dialectric heating by low-power RF which
    should not contain enough power to cause a cascade
    reaction.

    Although the salt is a vital component because it
    is acting as a heat sink, I understand the inventor took a
    sample of water from a canal in his backyard and thus
    I would expect to see all sorts of dissolved metals,
    pollutants and biogenic material in the water sample.
    This would tend to inhibit the cascading dialectric heating
    reaction described above.

    And since I understand that LOW-POWER radio frequency
    is being used to initiate the reaction, we should look
    into whether dialectric heating is enough to to cause
    the H20 breakdown. Because of other dissolved
    metals in the water I would not be surprised to find
    a capacitative effect where low-power RF that interacts
    or resonates dissolved materials can
    cause a massive discharge of inherent energies
    that are generally stable at Planck’s level scales.
    i.e. a nuclear reaction rather than purely a molecular one.

    This could be a case where a multiplier or amplification
    effect of many similar small reactions are combining
    to cause a weakening of and a subsequent catastrophic
    failure of stable molecular or Planck’s scale bonds and thus
    the breakdown of the H2O and ignition of the Hydrogen.

    Much like a footbridge that can shake itself apart if enough
    people are walking in lockstep at the right pace, a
    large-scale chemical reaction can be initiated by
    many smaller non-descript reactions that combine
    and amplify each other (i.e. at resonating or harmonic
    frequencies) to cause a basic breakdown in nuclear
    and/or molecular bonds.

    Is it just the RF that’s is initializing the reaction?
    Or must there be specific dissolved material in the water
    at specific concentrations in order for the RF to cause
    an amplified/cascading reaction?

    This I do not know but there should DEFINITELY
    be further scientific inquiry into what is going on.
    hmmm…..maybe I should be taking a further look into this!

  32. Aiden Says:

    Well, if people who make discoveries like this end up dead, we need to step in to prevent this happening. What an amazing thing… I just wish he’d release the details as soon as possible… I want to get to making some electricity like this myself, if it’s possible… Imagine the freedom!

    And just imagine the chances to fight cancer too!

    This guy must be very much worrying petrol and medical companies… What a daunting position to be in!

  33. James Joyce Says:

    America has now awakened, but does not yet understand the roadblocks and tactics, which the oil lobby will employ to secure its power. America’s long-term goal, the survival of our democracy, its economic prosperity and solvency are threatened by elements in our own culture whose “self-interest,� is protected and flourishes at the expense of the governed, and for some arguably, the world.

    One fact is undeniable. An organism’s inability to adapt to a changing environment is extinction. America’s failure to aggressively develop clean and efficient alternative energy sources in a growing world energy market over a thirty-year period is displaying such inability to adapt.
    The demonstrably ill effects of two prior oil embargoes, recent history, on America’s economy has been eviscerated from our collective memory and the “logic of reason,” replaced by instilments, so pleasurable and numerous given our finite affluence, that we are incapable of grasping the inevitable consequences of our actions.

    Today the petroleum industry prospers by shifting the cost of the “Iraq War,� what is essentially a start up cost, to the American taxpayer on money borrowed from foreign interests, and American blood. The Bush administration is mortgaging America’s future and in doing so is destroying America’s middle class by enabling America’s continuing addiction to oil.

    JUST THINK 400 BILLION $ FOR A WAR TO SECURE OIL WHEN THE ANSWER MIGHT WELL BE THAT WHICH ENABLED LIFE, “SALT WATER.”

    However, in spite of conscience attempts by our political leaders to digress and manipulate issues, for their political livelihood, reality provides simple truths. The people’s recent message to our government shows Americans are yearning for responsible local, state and national leadership addressing real issues and taking reasoned measures to address those issues.

    THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS TO SOCIETY AND THE WORLD OF THIS “discovery” ARE HUGE AND REQUIRES A “MANHATTAN PROJECT” PRIORITY SHOULD SUBSEQUENT INVESTIGATION CONFIRM TRUE BENEFITS. ON ITS FACE THIS IS HUGE111111111111

  34. A rope leash Says:

    I’m a layman, but I know a little about RF. Microwave ovens are high-wattage RF generators, and cook by shaking the atoms up. I’ve never seen anything inside the microwave “catch fire”, however.

    If a low-watt RF generator, (like a cellphone), can make salt water burst into flames…then there is probably something more going on that is worth looking into.

    Of course, the USA won’t…but what would be stopping China, or even Brazil? Are they controlled by Big Oil, too? My suspicion is that there may be a way to use water as fuel, but there is no way as of yet to make it practical. If there was, it would be a better mousetrap, and some entity somewhere would take advantage…there are great scientists all over the world…surely Big Oil cannot stab them all, and some country somewhere would see the benefit and develop the technology.

  35. Dennis Justice Says:

    Yeah, some of the greatest things ever discovered was done by accident.

    Like America. :P

    Seriously, I’m in the “give the information to the world” crowd.

    I’m telling you now, we’re more likely to see cars powered by salt water made in INDIA before America. Bank on it.

    Now hearing that local congressman is pushing for a grant for this guy. Good. I also think he should patent this and give it out to the public interest. There are way too many ways he can prosper without giving this technology to a large corporation who would hide it.

    While I support more refineries for gas and lower gas taxes, the only thing that will surely drop oil prices is a COMPETITIVE CHEAPER FUEL. Economics 101.

    We all know there are people who run diesel cars on vegetable oil. Smells like McDonalds and not a great commercial idea. This is. Somebody get to building a pratical engine for this and get rich rich rich…

    I can see this run on smaller race cars (like Arena Racing USA, an indoor racing series). If they wreck not any environmental damage and no fumes.

  36. Ken D. Webber Says:

    You guys are WAY behind the times. Let me spell it out for you. Solar cells to power an air compressor and stored in batteries in your garage… Use the air compressor to power these two types of engines in the videos below the sketch on this page:
    http://www.kendwebber.com/oily5.html
    Watch all the videos and you’ll learn that OIL IS DEAD.

    So… solar cells + batteries + an air compressor + air powered engines = FREE ENERGY! The quicker you support this, the quicker this whole society gets healthier and more FREE.

    Ken

  37. James Joyce Says:

    Of course, the USA won’t…but what would be stopping China, or even Brazil?

    There is only one thing that would create a greater threat to the oil monopolies than no access to middle eastern oil. Technology rendinging their product obsolete being developed in another country like Iran. Who knows maybe this is what the Iranian’s have been working on all this time. Some sort of cold fusion or fission reaction at the sub atomic level that we do not understand yet……………..

    “I’m a layman, but I know a little about RF. Microwave ovens are high-wattage RF generators, and cook by shaking the atoms up. I’ve never seen anything inside the microwave “catch fireâ€Â?, however.

    If a low-watt RF generator, (like a cellphone), can make salt water burst into flames…then there is probably something more going on that is worth look”ing into” A rope leash Says, you are correct

    Dennis Justice is right on also “Yeah, some of the greatest things ever discovered was done by accident.”

    This is the stuff that the America I now and love is all about. Take your oil and shove it CHENEY!!!!!!!!!!!!

  38. Jodie Williams Says:

    Does anyone here know anything about M-state metals? Saltwater had high amounts of gold, thorium, and irridium. It had been said that saltwater has a pound of gold per every 500 gallons. David Hudson discovered them in the 70’s. Anyway to make a long story short could the radio waves striking the M-state element superheating them be causing the reaction?

    Here is a link to David Hudson’s work….
    http://www.asc-alchemy.com/hudson.html
    someone please look into this and post back!!!

  39. James Joyce Says:

    Aviation Jedi,

    Is any information availible on input / output amounts of energy of the Kansius event? This is where I wish my brain was wired to understand the chemical/physics of the event in equation form.

    For a pratical matter what volume of hydroden would be needed to to drive a car say 400 miles compared to a on a 16 gallon tank of gasoline? Somewhere I read a car travelled cross coutry on 22 gal of h2o?

    Could the Flieshman-Pons experiments somehow be related to the event Kanzius was able to create in a simpler way using less energy.

    Okham’s Razor always comes to mind.

    Since there are other videos dealing with HHO fuels for vehichles and welding equipment that already exists seems a sythesis of the Kanzius and HHO fuel tech is warranted. The implications are staggering. A close system water based internal combustion engine, run on hydrogen fuel derived from salt water.

    Geez in four years we developed the A bomb. Created the information highway because of the IT revolution all these wonderful advances in medicine and a better understanding of our universe all enabled by the scientific method.

    The internet is the vehicle by which this information is manifest to the world. Net neutrality baby and the free flow of information for the betterment of mankind is what I think our “Founding Fathers” would be proud of!!! Just think of the resources we are wasting on War to protect the interest’s of corporate oil and the bedfellows? I thinks America’s founders are rolling in their graves at the moment given the issues facing our nation and the world. Long Live America and its creative individuals. Of course the present purveyors of energy will scream the world is still flat and it cost to much. As long as it is not thier blood which is being spilled to protect their vested interests.

    SCREW THE GOT OIL CROWD!!!!!! Lets do what America does best,,toy tinker and tweak till we get it right!!!!!!!

    Natural Selection, Corporate Treason and “Excutive Oil”

    WAKE UP AMERICA!!!!

  40. James Joyce Says:

    “If I was this inventor and I died knowing I made this world a better place- even if I made not ONE cent from the invention – I will still feel extremely satisfied…more satisfied than the BASTARDS raping this planet and it’s people to hoard the booty that they cannot take with them once they leave this place.” DITTO MY FELLOW HUMAN BEING. A great statement!

    Is there some linkage between brown’s gas, the FP Cold fusion claim and Kanzius’s recent discovery? All claim to have properties that cannot be explained using conventional models. Is is something as simple as say water expands when frozen unlike most things which contract when cold. A simple exception to a well accepted general rule which makes all the piece now fall in place? THIS MUST BECOME REALITY NOW just like Capt Kirk’s cell phone, opps I meant his “communincator!!!”

    Natural Selection, Corporate Treason and “Excutive Oil�

  41. Saltwater into fire « Desalination Research And Development Says:

    [...] The most plausible explanation I’ve found for the reaction is in the comments section here. First, you need to know what’s in the water. H2O and Na+ (sodium) and Cl- (chloride) that is water and dissolved salt. [...]

  42. James Joyce Says:

    “I have never heard of such a thing,” Alice Deckert, Ph.D., chairwoman of Allegheny College’s chemistry department, told the Times-News. “There “DOESN’T SEEM” to be enough energy in radio waves to break the chemical bonds and cause that kind of reaction.”

  43. Diggermaniac Says:

    A rope leash writes…. I’ve never seen anything inside the microwave “catch fireâ€Â?……..

    That because you were following the direction. Leave the aluminum foil on some leftovers sometime, sitback and watch the fireworks. BTW, if enough energy bounces back to the magnetron, you might fry your nuker.

    On the burning saltwater issue, I think I’ve heard enough to agree the fuel energy source concept is busted on the Laws of Thermodynamics. It’s Chemistry 101. It takes as much to crack water as you get when you combine it. Sort of one of those conservation of energy rules.

    As for Big Oil, I think they would love to help develop an alternative to a limited resource, like fossil fuels. What I think everyone expects is instant adoption of some low cost alternative. Big Oil has its foothold on one thing any alternative can offer. Distribution and Application. They got it, you need it and you can get it. It and the ancillary industries (e.g. transportation) drive the world’s economy. Don’t be too quick to damn that as being bad. To all those that think Big Oil would squash a threat to their limited resource, I beg to differ. There may be only 50 years of it left (a blink in the age of earth timeline) anyway, I think they would be embracing any other out that was remotely cost effective.

  44. tractoristul vesel Says:

    hahaha !
    too little gain ! Anyway , I’ll pay close attention.
    I don’t see it as an energy solution in my life time ( i’m pretty old ! ), but, with a little imagination , I can see a few new products. Our Media jumps too high.
    Big oils stay in place for next 500 years. There is enough oil and it’s wrong to think about oil as a ” fossil ” origin. The origin ( oil ) is unknown.

  45. JOHN M BERGER Says:

    As far as I know, ethanol production, in it’s present state, may not be cost effective in terms of energy to produce v. energy generated by the finished product, at the present time. Nevertheless, production and research to perfect the end product continues. Apparently a positive outcome is anticipated or this highly subsidized operation would cease. If many marvels that we now take for granted , such as air flight, that “experts” deemed IMPOSSIBLE had not been pursued by perseverance and vision beyond conventional thinking, where would we be today? Mr. Kanzius’ discovery may well have merit.

  46. Big_Stash Says:

    There are currently a number of interesting alternatives being developed to replace/supplant hydrocarbon fuels. One of the most interesting is Dr. Bussard’s inertial electrostatic confinement fusion. Until this year it was funded by the US Navy. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_W._Bussard or
    http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1996321846673788606

    This is serious technology that will change the world.

  47. MasterofNone Says:

    I think the story is facisnating and even moreso because it raises the point that much of this is known and has been seen before. So the question is, does this chap have a security detail? The web allows an almost intantaneous distribution of information so what was once a small town news story is now international…though not headline news…but still, what are we going to do with this information?

  48. JC Says:

    Well there is a lot of different thinking going on here both suppressive and positive. I favor the forward thinking mans thoughts. i myself do not hold to the thinking that you cannot get more out than you put in. After all think about gasoline, if you put even an ounce of gas in a 500 HP motor you will get 500 HP out of it for a matter of minutes. That is way more than the ounce you put into it. For all those that subscribe to the old ways of thinking, you will be stuck there until you let go of the restricted thought patters of that way of thinking. On another note we have a number of spiritual teachers that tap into the cosmose and bring back bits of advanced information from time to time.

    For one I read one such spiritual channel that said man is not far from the zero point energy discoveries. It was also said that a discovery by our current scientist will be made known soon that will show an enormous amount of energy output from an idea that has been overlooked for centuries because it was deemed to be to simple and not worth persuing.

    My thought are that we as a human race will overcome the Illuminati and all that comes from those dark dominions. One of the best was for man to turn this into a reality now is to just turn away from the system as it is and do as we please. This will cause the corrupt system to implode because we are no longer supporting it with our queries and taxes and such. It would then just wither and die a rapid death as it deserves.

  49. MD_Pride Says:

    How much energy did it take to produce that ounce of gasoline?

    Even if you scooped up the crude oil off the ground and then converted it into gasoline (without any additives), the process would consume more energy than it produced.

    This assumes that there was no energy expended in drilling for the crude oil, and no energy expended in transportation to the conversion process, and transportation from the conversion process.

  50. James Joyce Says:

    “How much energy did it take to produce that ounce of gasoline?”

    “Even if you scooped up the crude oil off the ground and then converted it into gasoline (without any additives), the process would consume more energy than it produced.”

    “This assumes that there was no energy expended in drilling for the crude oil, and”" no energy expended in transportation to the conversion process.”

    MD Pride,
    Great question I asked myself? In a true cost benefits analysis the answer would be to the chagrin of “Big Oil.” There are better ways than this system that is stanggling us

    If my history is correct man hunted and killed whales to obtain the “fuel” to light lanterns. When crude oil was first discovered as a viable fuel source it was to use produce Kerosene to replace Whale oil. One byproduct of the process creating kerosene was gasoline. It was thrown away until it replace alcohol as the fuel to run the model T ford. Yes Ford envisioned his vehicle to use alcohol as fuel. The suppresion of tech innovation to market by powerful entites is not american. It is a tactic used by selfish people to protect vested interests, The reasons people came to America in the first place to be free, free of corruption, enslavement and to make life better.

    Have we become “that” which we severed out ties with 200+ years ago???
    I’m afraid so.

    “Big Oil has its foothold on one thing any alternative can offer. Distribution and Application.” England had a hold on the “Tea Market” as I recall.

    Anything that cuts them out of the loop of profit will be crushed, Like Saddam Hussien, Iran’s Mossedagh

    This is gross, a fraction of 600 billion dollars could go a long way to develop America’s long term energy needs…………………….

    Instead we allow our government and military “to kill” to secure a future oil reserve beneath the sands of Al Anbar Province, in Iraq, stolen by coporate oil interests. Is this not what England did to US and we killed them to gain independance. Real American Principles at work here!!!!!!!!!

    http://en.allexperts.com/q/Energy-Industry-Oil-2441/Gasoline-production.htm

    Question:
    How much regular, lead-free gasoline can be produced from a barrel of crude oil? Also what is the size of a barrel of crude oil? Please answer in US gallons or Litres. If you cannot answer these questions would you suggest someone who can? Thank you.

    Answer: First, a barrel of crude contains 42 gallons or 159 litres.
    On average, a barrel of crude oil will produce 19.5 gallons of gasoline although this figure can vary quite a bit depending on the type of crude oil and the refinery that processes the crude oil

    Question: How much energy is required in the production of 19.6 gallon of gasoline from a 42 gal barrel of Crude obtained in the mideast and shipped to America for refinement and distribution.

    “DECENTRALIZATION”

    Solar Powere RFWG that would produce hydrogen on an add needed basis with 4x the btu of gasoline and have water as exhaust is a winner!!!!!!

    Solar shingles and a inverters to run a small rwfg in each home providing heat, auto fuels. The implications are wonderful for the American people and the world. One problem, drug dealers, excuse me I meant energy providers will use every tactic availible to them to protect themselves just like tobacco…………………………………

    l

  51. Bob Wilson Says:

    The news video that I watched showed the inventor in the presence of the scientist putting (what appears to be) regular salt into a glass. The next shot shows liquid in a test tube being ignited in between two panels (his device). By inference [not definitive proof] it appears that he ran his device by mixing tap water and salt. If so, then that would remove the “oil from boats”, and other unknown elements, etc. from the saltwater formula that works in his RF generator.

    Also, according to the news video, His cancer device supposedly heats injected trace metals (like gold), that are attracted to unhealthy cells, causing those cells to also heat and die. From that I would infer that the RF is working on the Na-Cl in the water and heating them.

    I also would like an answer to one of the very fist questions that was asked in this chain: How much energy does it take to create this effect? Is the resulting output more than the required input. Only if that is true, is there any hope [barring any fatal intervention] of this becoming a viable answer to the energy crisis.

  52. Bob Wilson Says:

    One interesting question I saw posted on another blog: If the bright yellow flame DOES indicate the burning of sodium, what is happening with the chlorine from the NaCl? That just might be a flaw more fatal than BIG OIL in this discovery!

  53. DuramaXandBuggy Says:

    I am currently running my 02 silverado on vegtable oil. It works great and I bleieve that we need to lower our dependancy on forieng oil. There are may things I dont understand in regards to energy however a friend of mine has got his f150 running on Hydrogen. He simply pours water and a small amount of lye into a tank wich has pos neg nuet neg pos plates and runs a 50/50 blend of hydrogen and gas. It works. Ive seen it and trust me alternative fuels are there.

  54. Gene Says:

    John lorenzen, woodward, Iowa had a engine running on hydrogen when Henry Ford visited with him on his farm and both admitted to having a engine running on “water” (hydrogen). Simple 36vdc produces h2 likes its going out of style and an engine can produce more than it’s using when you use an iron rich water source. All this guy is producing is h2 and you did the same in chemistry class with a battery–correct?

  55. xircweb Says:

    Henry Eckstein is on the correct track.

    To try to make the understanding of these effects more lay-mans like, I will try to explain in principle what is happening here. Thinking in a reverse-chronological order, we need to understand that our understanding of Electro-magnetic-radiation is based on principles that Tesla discovered at a young age, while under the influence of Edison. Radio waves are simply Electro-magnetic-frequencies. Any physicist will concede that each element has a different “frequency”; basically the properties that make an element behave in different states. Water Molecules are moving at a much higher frequency than the same element in a different state (ice), Plasma (flame) is obviously the highest state. It is also important to note that water is comprised of two molecules that share very similar vibration properties. So, in the presence of H2O you have a composition of HOH, when you add Low levels of Electro Magnetic Energy, it is possible to not entirely “split” the molecule into diatomic H and diatomic O, but instead the water is vibrated and “polarized” so that it can be transformed to HHO (I’m not a Zero Point Freak, so don’t loose me here please). So, now you have in effect “capacitized” the water, now the HHO has no possibility to bond to other HOH molecules, so it comes out in the form of an unstable gas. When brought to a higher energy state by turning it to plasma (Add Spark), a catalyst reaction can occur. This is supposedly how the Pons Fleischman effect happened. Other people claiming to have not been able to replicate the reaction always miss one important detail; a nuclear reaction of any kind produces net energy that is taken advantage of, because of the chain reaction that occurs. They set up the electrolytic cell, add high voltage with low wattage (ooohhh and ahhh about the massive amount of “H2″ production (really HHO) and the nifty plasma effect in the center of the cell, but they never “DO” anything with the H / HHO they just turn off the power cell and see the output diminish. The key to the “catalyst” is the re-introduction of the fuel into the cell at the point of the plasma reaction, when this is done, you shut off the power source and “Cold Fusion” occurs. (The system works better with an electrolyte added, for the person who posted the concern about saltwater and the left over Cl, I use sodium bicarbonate, and it is much more stable.)

    I only make these points, because I have (just as Dennis Justice said in this post) “accidentally� created this cell while trying to create a more efficient electrolytic cell for producing “H� for storage to put into test Hydrogen fuel Cells. I started to notice that H production increased the closer I put my cathodes and anodes, and I could respectively decrease my wattage and have the same amount of H output. Was I getting more energy than I was putting in? Absolutely not, I was only trying to make something more efficient. No different than how cars used to get 20 MPG and thought to have good efficiency, technology changed (better fuel injectors, etc) and now we get 30 or 35. Its just a more efficient system. I plan to develop this technology until I am certain that it will entice the Capitalistic Engine we have, and not need scientific review. Then I will license (not patent) the technology und the GPLv3, this way the technology will be free for anyone to use, but people can still get paid for their efforts to make the technology better and provide support for a product. I was able to re-build my cell with parts bought from Home Depot and Wal-Mart for a whopping $50. The only reason I decided to do this was so that I could help other people independently verify the results.

    I’m personally tired of things being artificially slowed down due to a system that requires independent review by other Scientists. There are more than enough intelligent people out there, let the Idea be public, don’t worry about “reputations� (they don’t mean anything, look at Paris Hilton) and with all the great minds combined, there will be more of these “Accidents�. If it weren’t for experimentation by the curious we would be missing a lot of things today. Anybody ever hear of the Wright Brothers, and their nifty flying machine?

  56. Henry Dillard Says:

    Watch the oil companies Lobby go into action. By the way, what happened to the nuclear car battery that was supposed to run an automobile for years. This was promised back in the 50s when nuclear was the up and coing thing. Has anyone heard from this since that time.

  57. Tim Bingham Says:

    Why must we be so gullible? Please ask these two simple questions:

    1) How much energy does the machine consume while heating the water?

    2) How much energy is released when the water combusts?

    If the water truly is only common salt water and the answer to number 2 is greater than the answer to number 1, then he’s got something. If not, then we can forget about it. I’ll betcha quite a bit that 1 > 2.

  58. Kevin Shilton Says:

    Can someone please find out the input vs. output to see if should even be talked about as a ‘miracle’ and a solution to our future energy needs?

  59. john Says:

    I’m no scientest but the objections I’ve read above were answered on a radio interview today. He can get substantially more energy out than is put in and is working on controls as the first few tries produced 3000 f temps which would melt your engine. He’s finding ways to control via additives which he did not say what they were.
    He doesn’t sound like a kook.

    What I wonder about is why everyone is interested and talking about the energy thing instead of the cancer cure?

  60. obrian93 Says:

    “What I wonder about is why everyone is interested and talking about the energy thing instead of the cancer cure?” -john

    Screw cancer people. I want to make my car go. Cars are AWESOME. People with cancer are thin and depressing.

  61. joshlbetts Says:

    Simple Test.

    Compare the volt and amp of the RF generator w/ the heat produced.

    Done.

  62. american idiot Says:

    from an american idiot i dont know i would venture to say that this man may be on to something very big if only a cure for cancer!!!or just turning saltwater in to drinking water im sure goergia and the other southern states and those little towns that are only able to turn there water for an hour a day would surely like an answer to there problems of having no drinking water right now there doesnt ever seem to be a drought in the oceans of this world we fight over oil and power if this could work ther would definitly be a major power structure change in the world id say it sure would be hard for the oil guys to harness all the control over salt water huh i dont beleive the people of this world would let this happen by hte way oil boys would stillhave by products to produce ie ashphalt thinners oh dont forget plastic i think theres alittle mor use then 19 gallons of fuel from a barrel of oil just to name a few and u kneejerk scientest that are giving a quick explanation seem to need to go back to the drawing board ther may be some extraordinaryresults from this accident

  63. Big Oil Says:

    Where in Florida did you say Mr. Kanzius is from? I’d like to congratulate him on his… discovery.

  64. Dan Whitaker Says:

    Looks like an inefficient electrolysis process to me. More efficient would be a beaker of water with a set of DC powered Anode and Cathode submersexd in it. Collect the bubbles coming from each and you’ve got Hydrogen and Oxygwen enough to make a hot fire that yields heat and water. But from whence cometh the C current to power that process?

    C onvince me, simply show me the measurement of the power input into thAaRF generator please. I haven’t seen it yet!

    And no, I’m not “Big” oil,” Big Government,” “Big industry” or a member of the “Established Scientific Communiy” or ANYTHING like that with any vested interest in seeing this or “Perpetual Motion,” “Cold Fusion” or any other hairbrained money begging scheme fail as they must.

    I’m just a very skeptical observer. Especially wnenever anyone claims to have blown away some or all of Newton’s laws in one fell swoop. AND wants taxpayer funding to give him a good paying job to “Develop” it.

    SURE! I’ll buy that. As soon as I get a peak t the power input to energy output of this latest appeal to the naive.

  65. Colombus and the Wright Brothers Says:

    It is most interesting to see so many variable views on another man’s experiment. Most of these are comments upon a poorly defined set of facts. I will focus upon the comments more than the experiment which will be eventually unfolded by the real facts over time.

    No experiment created by any researcher should be pounced upon by ne
    gative thinkers who admit they do not know the real facts and when the inventor is still not sure what he has accomplished – give the guy a break and time to finish his work with your support more so than your criical views – wait and see.

    “It takes more energy to electrolyze water than the hydrogen and oxygen will produce when they are burned.” Are you sure? Even in the presence of a catalyst? Even if the water was hot rather than cold? Even when the altitude is higher instead of lower? Even in a vacumm? Even when there is a magnetic field in play? Even when the combustion activity involves elements you do not know about? Even etc., etc., etc…..

    Why do we not not see comments like “It take more energy to produce a gallon of gasoline then that gallon of gasoline contains? Should we say gasoline is not a fuel because it can not burn unless it is combined in a specific ratio +-14.6 to 1?

    These kind of distortions of the facts are usually written by “BIG OIL” advocates who also deny that oil is running short. Both methanol and ethanol will always be cheaper than gasoline because we are now at the World stage of war over oil forever. The Demand is higher than the supply
    and the prices for gasoline will never bring enough profit to satisfy the greed of the oil industry. That is why we will field water fueled vehicles in 2010 – check our WEB site at www//waterfueledsystems.net/

  66. Prabhat Saini Says:

    Well “Colombus and the Wright Brothers” said it all

    That is so true, there are 3 different views
    1. People who do see apple falling and never though of gravity as their nanny did not teach them.

    2. People who try to make healthier argumentation to get focused on the invention and put their findings on the subject

    3. But obvious big guys who try to suppress anything that can eat on their profits.

    Well it has to be big guys who should actually be coming with these ideas to get over with the fuel crisis and pollution. Look at gas prices. Is any one oil company loosing these days? No, just check for their quarterly profits and they will show better numbers then last year.

    We the people are the ultimate sufferers. I cannot do anything much as an individual, I heard about water as source of fuel for automobiles etc recently, so I started my research and have started gathering information and putting all of them on my website.

    http://www.aboutwatercar.com

    Let us see how much of a chain reaction I can help with as “Planet B.S. Chronicles” said above that they cannot quite all if we stand up to discoveries that can help humanity.

  67. Seth Jacobs Says:

    I think that these current gas prices are ridiculous and only benefiting a certain few who are profiteering over the misery of many. How could such a small group of a few hold so much power over many?

    This gas crisis is so out of hand, that I’ve resorted to drastic measures. Recently I converted my 04 Cadillac to utilize water as fuel from an easy to install kit, I obtained online from a company called Water4fuel,info

  68. Maury Conner Says:

    If the process is only 50% efficient it could still make a great difference. The US electrical power system has tremendous swings on load to customers through out the day. Power on the open market can reach 4-5 times higher during peak times during the late afternoons hours. Say a Megawatt of electricity at 3:00 in the morning is selling for $30.00. Peak times often are selling power for $120.00. So start the water process with radio waves up with power once the system load has diminished. make the hydrogen and shut the process down early in the morning as power costs increase. Power plants will run more efficient by remaining at a higher load. Use a car design to use the hydrogen or use it in combustion turbines to make electricity during late afternoon peak hours and sell the power and double money while only being 50% efficient.
    I’m a power plant operator in the south. There is a huge pumping station near here that takes water out of the river and pumps it up a 1000 foot mountain which takes a tremendous amount of electricty. The pumps (3) used are like 500 Megawatt motor-generators. It takes more power to pump the water up the mountain then it gets in return but it uses the same idea as above by selling the power for 4-5 times during peak operations and it also stabilizes the power system at night by maintaining somewhat a more constant load on the power grid. So efficiency isn’t as critical as many believe and if the process could be used in a large scale operation we can use coal, nuclear, hydro, wind and water to power our cars and decrease our dependency on oil

  69. johnandrews52 Says:

    Can we run our car with water and gas?
    Can anybody tell me is the HHO Gas is real working or is another scam?

  70. ronaldcollins Says:

    hi there, I use water to fuel a car as a supplement to gasoline. In fact, very little water is needed,only one quart of water provides over 1800 gallons of HHO gas which can literally last for months and significantly
    increase your car fuel efficiently, improve emissions quality, and save money. I found the way through this site http://www.runcarsonwater.us i really recommend it to everybody, it’s a nice ebook where you can find the instructions on how to do it! take a look.

  71. ionthruster Says:

    I deal with rf plasmas and vaporization on a daily basis. This “invention” for burning salt water does not add up. Yes, the rf heating can break down the water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, but that takes energy, just as much energy as you get back by burning them. That process can only be nuetral in energy at best and in practice, maybe 50% efficient when you consider the rf generation inefficiency. So, you waste 2 kW of power (generated by any method, rf-combustion, coal, oil, wind, solar, etc…) for every 1kW you generate by burning the hydrogen/oxygen back to water. There is one more problem: the salt residues will need to be dealt with. Sludge can not be tolerated in engines, turbines, you name it.

    His original work for curing cancer may work and is a useful R&D effort. Forget “burning salt water” as anyone worth his weight in salt water knows that can never be useful.

  72. john Says:

    Well…interesting. It seems some people believe water can not be used as a fuel by any means. I thought there more energy in a gallon of water than could be produced from the entire North American grid IF somebody knew how to convert all of the energy contained into useful work…Maybe Einstein…can’t remember ;)
    Also, it is my understanding that the salt residue is completely consumed…How can it be condemned if you have not tried it yourself? The specific technology he is using is not that difficult to replicate…Why haven’t some of you engineers actually tried to replicate his work? He was able to build a prototype in a couple of nights.
    Remember the three phases of scientific discovery…Perhaps, this is revolutionary!

  73. Dr. Chris Mohler Says:

    the things people come up with and discover these days! It is remarkable. seriously. I still personally like the idea of solar powered cars personally. I am waiting for that to get big!

  74. Larry Black Says:

    All this talk of over-unity? Why? Do you believe that gasoline is the result of over-unity? Well, if you do then you haven’t done your homework. This is why. It takes MORE energy from a gallon of gasoline to make that same gallon of gasoline. And that does not take into consideration the energy required to drill for it or discover it; just for the distillment process of turning oil into gasoline. On a comparitive basis, H2O is more readily available, thereby making it more cost effective AND it’s safer for the environment. To turn water into fuel makes more sense than using gasoline for cars, generators or any other combustion engine device. In its raw form, H2O helps cool the very engine it will later burn the H and O2. If you consider the energy it took to initially combine the two elements in the ‘big bang’ then you realize that any over-unity is a gift from the creation of our universe and not something we do ourselves. In that light, each and every molecule within the universe is over-unity in the form of stored energy(such as a battery) and when broken down you release the stored energy(atomic energy). Any other method is only getting a small percentage of that same atomic energy. The next logical step in the evolution of energy production would be to devise a way to release atomic energy on a limited scale. That would involve limiting the expanse on the chain reaction of atomic releasement or a shielding of outside to inside reaction chamber. The only thing that comes to mind is magnetic/electric shielding. Until we can find such shielding the talk of over-unity is a moot subject…

  75. Tina Says:

    Nice to see you are writing about alternative energy sources. And in fact radio waves are used in cancer treatment as a way to cook cancer by inserting a needle into the tumor and emitting a radio frequency that creates heat and cooks the cancer. Radio frequency ablation. So that part of the article sounded based in fact. However the second part, making flame out of salt water cam across a little weak. We usually need a carbon source to convert energy sources into an actual flame. Salt water just doesn’t have enough carbon in it do do the trick. Am I missing something here?

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